What is Computer Programming?

Concept of Computer Programming: A Computer Program is a set of instructions to perform a particular task. The instruction set to tell a computer to perform a task is called Programming language. The Programming language hierarchy is as follows:

Machine Language (1GL)
                        (Logic i.e. Numeric number)
Low Level Language (2GL)
                        (Conversion of logical structure to name or software)
High Level Language (3GL to Higher)
(Refinement of 2GL to make Programmer-friendly)
High level Languages: High level languages are simple like human language. Each language consists of unique set of keywords & special syntax in order to organize program instruction. The term programming language in general refers to high level language. The classification of high level language is as follows:
a.      Fifth Generation Language (5GL)
High level languages that use visual or graphical development interface to create source code are called as Fifth Generation Language. It habitually covers following properties.
i.                    5GL is a more like an application than a language.
ii.                 The concept behind 5GL is for all code to be automatically generated.
iii.                Example: WEBDEV 5GL
b.      Fourth Generation Language (4GL)
Database driven high level languages are referred to Fourth Generation Language. It often covers following properties.
i.                    Non procedural language
ii.                 Visual programming, such as using a mouse with icons.       
iii.               Database structures and programming.
iv.               Multi-skilled user interface to cover novices as well as database experts to use the programs.
c.       Third Generation Language (3GL)
High level languages are called as Third Generation Language (3GL) while. The Properties of 3GL are as follows.
i.                    Procedural language.
ii.                 Support aggregate data type.
iii.               Example: C, C++, C#, Java etc.  

Low Level or Assembly Language (2GL): Assembly language is the middle man between high level language & machine language. This termed as Second Generation Language (2GL) & include following properties.
i.                    Code can be written by programmer & it need to be convert into a machine readable form within a process called assembly.
ii.                 Specific to a particular environment or processor family
Machine Language (1GL): Machine language is a collection of binary digits or bits that the computer reads & interprets. The Computer understands machine language or machine code or binary code or object code. When a programmer write source code in high level language (C#, Java, Visual Basic, .Net) interpreter or compiler translate the source code to machine language.   Properties are as follows.
i.                    Directly executed by CPU.
ii.                 Code run very fast & efficiently.
iii.                No compiler or assembler is required to execute the code.

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